comma before comprising

Would this be correct? This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. In general, commas do not separate a simple series of two things, even if those things are clauses. Thanks for your vote! Don’t use a comma before a prepositional phrase. The same rules apply for titles. If it’s added information, add a comma. on the first pass.. The largest economies in Southeast Asia are those of Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Do you need a comma after Director? Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! Grammar Desk Reference, Cincinnati: Writer’s Digest Books, p. 225. eg He surprised her with an engagement ring. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series.. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. The problem with sentence-ending participial phrases is that writers often add such a phrase as an afterthought, and they often omit a needed comma. You could argue that the comma is used to create a natural break in the flow of a long sentence and to emphasize where the second clause begins, but not because they are independent clauses. If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, use a comma—unless the phrase is restrictive (3). Both of those phrases could stand alone as complete sentences. The only place in that sentence where commas are required is in the list at the end (running, jumping, and swimming). Then look at the words after but: it’s raining outside. ; Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. "Lily made Panna Cotta, an Italian dessert", Yep, looks fine -- just make sure to add a period at the end :-). Is the comma after girl necessary? include the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the underlined title of the work, which can be in shortened form. As always, use commas before and/or after names in direct address. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. Bonnie Mills has been a copyeditor since 1996. In many respects, this is a question of style rather than of right and wrong. A widget comprising: A; B; C; and D. where A, B, C, and D are usually long phrases which recite different elements in the claim. The first version’s reveal in a Bloomberg article and video prompted a cease-and-desist letter from the California Department of Motor Vehicles, which accused of testing a self-driving car in the state without a license. On the other hand, “a nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. But you don’t need a comma when you’re simply listing two items. Kym Utah The case 3 example is wrong. On Monday we’ll see the … The comma that I've used before and is called an Oxford comma and not all speakers feel it's necessary to include it, so that's a style choice as well. A Quick Trick for Deciding If You Need a Comma before “So” If you are unsure if you should place a comma before so in the middle of your sentence, try replacing so with “therefore” or “so that.” If your sentence seems to work with a replacement of “therefore” without changing the meaning of the sentence, then so is a coordinating conjunction and should have a comma before it. Rule 16b. When do you put a comma before a participial phrase such as "making me cry"? Comma use is subjective and in most, but not all cases is a style choice. The more complicated truth is that it depends on context: if a sentence is very long, or it seems necessary to insert a comma before because in order to make the meaning of the sentence clear, then that construction is acceptable. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. We’ve hired all our interns, and we’re ready to start working on the project. The Oxford comma reduces ambiguity in lists. In the sentence “She yelled at me, making me cry,” you use a comma because “making me cry” is extra information. Examples: … the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, and Health and Social Affairs ... Commas in pairs. What's the difference between this question and the Case 3 example? There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Commas and However This page is about whether to use a semicolon or a comma before however. While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. Remember: If it’s extra information, use extra commas. Fogarty, M. “Which Versus That,” Grammar Girl website. This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. Under pressure from the National Hig… No, you wouldn't use a comma since the title is being treated as part of his name. Subsequently, OpenPilot was packaged into a shippable device dubbed the Comma One, which again ran afoul of the authorities because of noncompliance with U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Write to us your doubts and queries through comments. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. Participial phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence, but today we’re focusing on those that come at the end. A comma should precede the term etc. That comma is optional. 1991). Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. Boo: I signaled to the mayor about the mustard, on his lip. title is supposed to be italicized, too. The Curious Case of the Misplaced Modifier, Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing, OpenPilot had a bit of a rocky start. 6. Comma before as? Commas before “including” in restrictive phrases. Here, we’re concerned with present participles, such as “making.” “Making me cry” is a participial phrase because it is headed up by the participle “making.”. It is generally set to 'root'. Lutz, Gary, and Diane Stevenson. ; Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. It is used to join two complete sentences into a single sentence, and it must be followed by a suitable connecting word. If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. In past Grammar Girl episodes, I’ve talked about how to use the words “which” and “that” with restrictive and nonrestrictive elements. You can’t just stick on a phrase somewhere without paying attention to punctuation. Examples. A Comma before However It is common grammar mistake to use a comma before however when it is being used to merge two sentences into a compound sentence.For example: I hate potatoes, however, I like chips. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. It should read 'The distinguished scientist Mr Stephen, of AKL University, will be addressing the crowd tomorrow.' It contains additional information that is not necessary to understand the sentence, so you can delete the clause if you want. Comma . If we delete “making me cry,” we’re left with “She is the lady,” which doesn’t have the same meaning. That. Hope you liked the article. Quick & Dirty Tips™ and related trademarks appearing on this website are the property of Mignon Fogarty, Inc. and Macmillan Publishing Group, LLC. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) Lutz, Gary, and Diane Stevenson. When “for” is used as a conjunction between two clauses (“for” is the F in FANBOYS) then you need a comma before it. How about this. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. Such clauses “are usually surrounded by, or preceded by, commas” (1). The same rules apply for titles. When it’s used as a preposition (e.g., some flowers for my mom) you probably don’t need a comma before it, unless it’s in a list or some other structure that needs commas. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. Some people put the comma before the "and" while others leave it out, but it definitely does not go after. Coordinating conjunctions also called as coordinators, join two independent clauses in order to construct a compound sentence. Hiss! Thanks for waiting, Gary. “who is a better painter than I” is correct because the “am” is understood. Sure? A thousand splendid suns, authored by Khaled Hosseini, is a fantastic novel. Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "and"? Happy new year, Farrah! 2. I remember a comma rule that clarifies if you would only have one wife who is Susan or multiple wives of which Susan is one, but can't remember. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Comma , The comma joins two or more ideas in a sentence or separates items in a series. Girl, have you been to Japon? Today, we’re revisiting the concept of restrictive versus nonrestrictive elements. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. In that case, the CRON expression is a string comprising 6 or 7 fields. ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. 2005. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. "This would mean the speaker is telling about John to Tina (the friend). Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. That means they’re independent clauses, so you need to use a comma before but. You can think of a nonrestrictive clause as simply additional information” (1). She hated going to the dentist, and cried the whole way there. Here’s another example: “I saw the waves crashing onto the surfer.” Here, “crashing onto the surfer” tells us something very specific about the waves: what the waves were doing. Commas before as can be more tricky. People often get muddled about whether to place a comma before conjunctions like and, so, because, and or. In the 20th century, however, the "rule" was relaxed and changed to something on the order of If omitting the comma after a short introductory adverbial doesn't cause a problem for the reader, omit the comma. Web. – Casey Jul 27 '14 at 4:53. “who is a better painter than me” is incorrect. Comma … It’s not extra information; it’s essential information. (accessed April 4, 2011). It can be easy to get confused about restrictive and nonrestrictive elements, so remember this: If it’s extra information, use extra commas. Now let’s get to the issue at hand. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. One can analyze the letter salutation “Dear John” as a noun phrase comprising a proper name and an adjective modifying it, functioning as a vocative, and therefore sandwiched between the real beginning of the letter’s first sentence and a following comma. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … We’re comparing sentences like “She yelled at me, making me cry” and “She is the lady making me cry.” One of these “making me cry” phrases is restrictive, and one is not. It’s now more important than ever to develop a powerful writing style. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. ; Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. I never know when to use a comma before with and when not. When should you use a comma? You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. A comma and a coordinating conjunction can be used to connect independent clauses in forming compound sentences. Make sure that the comma is placed before the coordinating conjunction. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. I know it is when saying names, but what about girl or boy? You could say, “The boy who threw up on Space Mountain wished he had stayed home.”  Here, the “who” clause is restrictive: It defines which particular boy wished he had stayed home, so you can’t delete the clause, nor do you use commas around it. It’s a myth that you put in commas wherever you would pause— don’t rely on that fake rule—but it’s true that you often pause when you hit a comma when you’re reading a sentence aloud. Hooray: I signaled to the mayor about the mustard on his lip. If you listened to the podcast version of this article, you may have noticed that I the speaker paused slightly before the participial phrases. Then it starts to look like three people founded the company: My wife, Susan, and me. In other words, it depends on how important the phrase is to the overall meaning of the sentence. The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. They serve amazing sushi. You already saw the sentence “She is the lady making me cry.” Here, we don’t use a comma because we can’t delete the phrase “making me cry.” This phrase defines which particular lady we’re talking about. Now let’s see some sentence-ending participial phrases that don’t require a comma. 1 Esercizio v. Roberts, 944 F.2d 1235, 1245 (6th Cir. We sold 1,270 … Is a comma necessary in a sentence like: 1. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I recently came to know. I’m going to say this again because it’s important: A pause in a sentence does not mean that’s where you use a comma. He … Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. We truly appreciate your support. An example is the “which” clause in this sentence: “The town, which lies thirty miles from the capital, is famous for its potato festival.” The “which” clause is surrounded by commas. Is it necessary to put a comma before the name for the examples below: 3. The connecting words which can be used in this way are and, or, … We are currently experiencing playback issues on Safari. In case you’re not up on the concepts of restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses, here’s a quick review so we’re all on the same page.

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